Periodontal disease is an inflammation of some or all of a tooth’s deep supporting structures. Today, it is one of the most common diseases in dogs.
If food particles and bacteria are allowed to collect along the dog’s gumline, it can form plaque, which, when combined with saliva and minerals, will transform into calculus. This causes gum irritation and results in an inflammatory condition called gingivitis. Gingivitis, which is evidenced by a reddening of the gums directly bordering the teeth, is thought about to be an early stage of periodontal disease.
After a prolonged period, the calculus develops under the gum and separates it from the teeth. Spaces will form under the teeth, fostering bacterial growth. Once this happens, the dog has irreversible periodontal disease. This normally leads to bone loss, tissue destruction and pus development in the cavities in between the gum and teeth.
Periodontal disease affects both felines and dogs of all ages, though it is more typical in older animals.
Symptoms of Gum Disease in Dogs
Gum disease typically starts with the inflammation of one tooth, which may advance if not treated during different stages of the condition. A dog with stage 1 gum disease in several of its teeth, for example, will exhibit gingivitis with no separation of the gum and tooth. Stage 2 is characterized by a 25 percent attachment loss, while stage 3 includes a 25 to 30 percent attachment loss. In stage 4, which is likewise called advanced periodontitis, there is more than a 50 percent accessory loss. In the most sophisticated stage of the disease, the gum tissue will generally decline and the roots of the teeth will be exposed.
Causes of Periodontal Disease in Dogs
Gum disease can be triggered by a variety of factors. In dogs, the most common causes are the Streptococcus and Actinomyces bacteria. Canine toy breeds with congested teeth, and dogs that groom themselves, carry a higher risk of getting the disease. In addition, bad nutrition will also add to the start of the condition.
The diagnosis of periodontal disease involves a number of treatments. If periodontal probing exposes more than two millimeters of range in between the gingivitis-affected gum and tooth, a dog is considered to have some form of periodontal irregularity.
X-rays are very crucial in diagnosing gum disease due to the fact that as much as 60 percent of the symptoms are hidden beneath the gum line. In the disease’s early stages, radiographic imaging will reveal loss of density and sharpness of the root socket (alveolar) margin. In more advanced stages, it will expose loss of bone support around the root of the impacted tooth.
How to Treat Periodontal Disease in Dogs?
The particular treatment for periodontal disease depends upon how advanced the disease is. In the early stages, treatment is concentrated on controlling plaque and preventing accessory loss. This is accomplished by daily brushing with animal safe toothpaste, expert cleaning, polishing, and the prescribed application of fluoride.
In stage 2 or 3, the treatment includes the cleansing of the space in between the gums and teeth and the application of antibiotic gel to invigorate gum tissues and reduce the size of the area.
In the advanced stages, bone replacement treatments, periodontal splinting, and directed tissue regrowth may end up being needed.
Living and Management
Follow-up treatment for gum disease consists primarily of good dental care and weekly, quarterly, or half-yearly checks. Diagnosis in dogs will depend on how advanced the disease is, but the best method to lessen the negative affects brought on by the disease is to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and correct therapy.
The best prevention is to keep great oral health and to regularly brush and clean the dog’s mouth and gums.