Middle aged and older dogs are more at risk for establishing hyperglycemia, and it is more common in female dogs than in males. Any type can be affected, however some smaller types seem more disposed, consisting of beagles, cairn terriers, dachshunds, miniature poodles and schnauzers.
Hyperglycemia in Dogs
A dog with unusually high levels of glucose in the blood is stated to have hyperglycemia. An easy carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, which normal levels range in between 75-120mg.
Insulin, a hormone that is produced and launched by the pancreas into the blood stream when glucose levels increase, plays a crucial role in maintaining regular sugar levels. Low levels or absolute deficiency of insulin results in unusually high blood sugar level levels.
Some of the causes for hyperglycemia might be pancreatitis, and the resulting failure to produce insulin; generally occurring hormones, specifically in female dogs; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract).
Symptoms and Types of Hyperglycemia in Dogs
Scientific symptoms may differ depending upon the underlying disease/condition. Your dog might not be showing any serious symptoms, particularly those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormone, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more typical symptoms include:
- Increased thirst (polydipsia).
- Increased urination (polyuria).
- Weight loss.
- Weight problems.
- Excessive cravings.
- Bloodshot eyes (due to swollen capillary).
- Liver enhancement.
- Nerve damage in legs.
- Severe depression (in cases of extremely high blood sugar level levels).
- Non-healing wounds; infection is increased as the excess sugar feeds fungal and bacterial invaders.
- Tissue damage (due to oxidizing [burning] effect of the excess sugar in the tissue).
Causes of High Blood Sugar in Dogs
Aside from high stress scenarios, damaging drug interactions (such as with heartworm medication), and consumption of nutritional services including high glucose, the following are prospective causes to hyperglycemia:.
Low glucose intake within the body resulting in high blood glucose levels
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Acute pancreatitis.
- High progesterone levels.
- Inadequate excretion of wastes by the kidneys.
High glucose production
- Pancreatic neoplasia.
- Soon after taking meal.
- Infections in the body can drive blood sugar level levels high.
- Dental infection.
- Kidney infection.
- Urinary tract infection.
A total blood profile will be carried out, including a chemical blood profile, a total blood count, and a urinalysis. Your vet will have the blood samples checked instantly for blood glucose levels. Sometimes the only unusual finding will be the raised blood sugar level. This is especially true in cases that are linked to temporary conditions, such as stress or hormones. Unless there is some hidden disease/condition present, the blood test results are normally typical.
Urinalysis might reveal higher sugar levels, pus, bacteria, and an extreme number of ketone bodies in the urine, as seen in diabetes mellitus. Low insulin levels accompanied by high blood sugar levels are likewise indicative of diabetes mellitus. High lipase and amylase enzyme levels indicate inflammation in the pancreas. Sometimes higher liver enzyme levels are likewise present due to fatty deposits in the liver tissue. Abdominal X-rays and ultrasound may offer important information concerning the underlying disease.
More particular tests might be needed to diagnose the underlying cause. You will have to give a comprehensive history of your dog’s health, onset of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have resulted in this condition. The history you supply may give your vet ideas regarding which organs are causing secondary symptoms, such as undiagnosed diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, amyloidosis). Previous infections may still be present too, causing a spike in glucose levels. If your dog has had any previous infection in the body, you should inform your vet about them.
As there are number of conditions that can raise blood sugar level levels, the treatment depends upon correction of the underlying cause. In cases of physiological rise in blood sugar levels, stress will need to be lessened or removed.
It is never ideal to attempt reducing the blood sugar level levels suddenly as it might cause hypoglycemia or lower blood sugar level levels. In diabetic patients glucose level changes are common and changing the insulin dose or other drugs can help resolve the problem. There are some situations where glucose levels are high but do not indicate an increase in insulin and can even be aggravated by increased insulin dosages. Your vet will assist you in figuring out when to adjust insulin levels.
Living and Management
In case of diabetes, the dog owner’s life-long commitment and compliance is required for proper management of the disease. These animals likewise need special diets containing less concentrations of sugar. High-protein, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, and high fiber diet is frequently suggested for these patients. If your dog is diabetic, you will need to strictly follow the treatment standards offered for your dog to avoid major changes in blood sugar level levels.
If insulin has actually been recommended, it needs to be injected at the correct time and in the right dose. Never change the brand or quantity of insulin dose on your own without prior assessment with your veterinarian.